Try a new feature of Rails6 : (case_sensitive)

Introduction

Let's try out the new features added to Rails 6. This time it is case_sensitive.

Rails 6 now gives a warning when using MySQL when using uniqueness validation.

I did confirm on Ruby 2.6.4, Rails 6.0.0, MySQL 8.0.17

$ rails --version
Rails 6.0.0

Today, I will checkout on using the rails console after creating User model

Create Project

rails new rails_sandbox
cd rails_sandbox

Create User model

I will create an User model that contains name property

bin/rails g model User name

Add validation to User model

Add User's name attribute as an unique attribute

  • app/models/user.rb
class User < ApplicationRecord
  validates :name, uniqueness: true
end

Register seed data

I registered only 1 record of User

db/seed.rb
User.create(name: 'Taro')

Execute migration and register seed data

bin/rails db:create db:migrate db:seed

Confirm in rails console

Check in rails console

Create user object by User.new(name: 'taro')

irb(main):001:0> user = User.new(name: 'taro')
   (0.4ms)  SET NAMES utf8mb4,  @@SESSION.sql_mode = CONCAT(CONCAT(@@sql_mode, ',STRICT_ALL_TABLES'), ',NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO'),  @@SESSION.sql_auto_is_null = 0, @@SESSION.wait_timeout = 2147483
=> #<User id: nil, name: "taro", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>

Execute validation are done by user.valid?

irb(main):002:0> user.valid?
DEPRECATION WARNING: Uniqueness validator will no longer enforce case sensitive comparison in Rails 6.1. To continue case sensitive comparison on the :name attribute in User model, pass `case_sensitive: true` option explicitly to the uniqueness validator. (called from irb_binding at (irb):2)
  User Exists? (0.9ms)  SELECT 1 AS one FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = BINARY 'taro' LIMIT 1
=> true

I know that I had a DEPRECATION WARNING

And also, the SQL WHERE clause that performs validation checks

WHERE `users`.`name` = BINARY 'taro'

also note that BINARY are attached.

Problem of this action

When saving an user

irb(main):003:0> user.save
DEPRECATION WARNING: Uniqueness validator will no longer enforce case sensitive comparison in Rails 6.1. To continue case sensitive comparison on the :name attribute in User model, pass `case_sensitive: true` option explicitly to the uniqueness validator. (called from irb_binding at (irb):3)
   (0.5ms)  BEGIN
  User Exists? (0.7ms)  SELECT 1 AS one FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = BINARY 'taro' LIMIT 1
  User Create (0.7ms)  INSERT INTO `users` (`name`, `created_at`, `updated_at`) VALUES ('taro', '2019-09-01 04:37:55.708725', '2019-09-01 04:37:55.708725')
   (13.0ms)  COMMIT
=> true

Then we search the name that equals to taro

irb(main):006:0> User.where(name: 'taro').count
   (0.8ms)  SELECT COUNT(*) FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = 'taro'
=> 2

We received 2 results Taro and taro

Because of that

Since Rails 6.1 and later will stop this inconsistent behavior and default to case-insensitive validation.

Use the: case_sensitive option if you want the behavior as before.

when :case_sensitive is set to true

  • app/models/user.rb
class User < ApplicationRecord
  validates :name, uniqueness: { case_sensitive: true }
end

Let's try to check validation here

irb(main):006:0> reload!
Reloading...
=> true
irb(main):007:0> user = User.new(name: 'taRo')
=> #<User id: nil, name: "taRo", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>
irb(main):008:0> user.valid?
  User Exists? (0.8ms)  SELECT 1 AS one FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = BINARY 'taRo' LIMIT 1
=> true

This time there's no warning that comes out

when :case_sensitive is set to false

  • app/models/user.rb
class User < ApplicationRecord
  validates :name, uniqueness: { case_sensitive: false }
end

Let's try to check validation here

irb(main):009:0> reload!
Reloading...
=> true
irb(main):010:0> user = User.new(name: 'taRo')
=> #<User id: nil, name: "taRo", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>
irb(main):011:0> user.valid?
  User Exists? (0.8ms)  SELECT 1 AS one FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = 'taRo' LIMIT 1
=> false

This time the warning also do not pop out, but note that validation is also checked without regard to case.

The result of user.valid? is false, and the SQL where clause used in validation does not have BINARY.

What happens if MySQL is case sensitive in the first place?

First, let's see what happens if migration is running, so that MySQL is case sensitive.

$ bin/rails g migration user_name_column_to_binary

Edit the created migration file.

  • db/migrate/20190901051514_user_name_column_to_binary.rb
class UserNameColumnToBinary < ActiveRecord::Migration[6.0]
  def up
    execute('ALTER TABLE users MODIFY name varchar(255) BINARY')
  end

  def down
    execute('ALTER TABLE users MODIFY name varchar(255)')
  end
end

Return model as follows.

  • app/models/user.rb
class User < ApplicationRecord
  validates :name, uniqueness: true
end

Run the migration and re-register the seed data.

$ bin/rails db:migrate db:seed:replant

Re-check again in rails console

irb(main):001:0> user = User.new(name: 'taro')
   (0.3ms)  SET NAMES utf8mb4,  @@SESSION.sql_mode = CONCAT(CONCAT(@@sql_mode, ',STRICT_ALL_TABLES'), ',NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO'),  @@SESSION.sql_auto_is_null = 0, @@SESSION.wait_timeout = 2147483
=> #<User id: nil, name: "taro", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>

There is no warning when we run the valid? method

irb(main):002:0> user.valid?
  User Exists? (0.4ms)  SELECT 1 AS one FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = 'taro' LIMIT 1
=> true

Save to user, there is only 1 result if searching taro

irb(main):003:0> user.save
   (0.5ms)  BEGIN
  User Exists? (0.7ms)  SELECT 1 AS one FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = 'taro' LIMIT 1
  User Create (0.3ms)  INSERT INTO `users` (`name`, `created_at`, `updated_at`) VALUES ('taro', '2019-09-01 05:32:29.403443', '2019-09-01 05:32:29.403443')
   (13.0ms)  COMMIT
=> true
irb(main):004:0> User.where(name: 'taro').count
   (0.7ms)  SELECT COUNT(*) FROM `users` WHERE `users`.`name` = 'taro'
=> 1

In this case, it seems to work without any warnings or inconsistencies.

Although it is snake-legged, it seems that you can also set the case-sensitivity in table units instead of column units (but unconfirmed).

Also, there seems to be a case-sensitive setting in the MySQL DB itself (config/database.yml), but I couldn't find it.

Used Source code

https://github.com/suketa/rails_sandbox/tree/try081_mysql_comparison

If MySQL was case-sensitive

https://github.com/suketa/rails_sandbox/tree/try081_mysql_comparison_user_name_column_to_binary

Reference Info

What is new in Rails 6.0

Deprecate mismatched collation comparison for uniquness validator


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