🔐Validating and Sanitizing User Input in Node.js Express


User input validation and sanitization are crucial aspects of web development. They help prevent security vulnerabilities, such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks, while also ensuring that the data entered by users is accurate and consistent. In this article, we'll explore various techniques for validating and sanitizing user input in Node.js Express applications, using the popular libraries express-validator and sanitize-html.

Why Validate and Sanitize User Input?


Validation is the process of checking whether user input meets specific criteria, such as data type, length, or format. Validation is essential for several reasons:

  • Data Consistency: Validation ensures that user input aligns with the expected format, making it easier to process and store the data.
  • User Experience: Providing meaningful feedback to users about incorrect input helps them correct their mistakes, resulting in a smoother user experience.
  • Security: Validation can help prevent security vulnerabilities by rejecting malicious input before it reaches sensitive parts of the application.


Sanitization is the process of cleaning user input by removing or altering potentially harmful data. This is crucial for preventing security vulnerabilities such as XSS attacks, where an attacker injects malicious code into a web application.

Getting Started with Express and Middleware

Before diving into validation and sanitization, let's set up a basic Express application and understand the role of middleware.

Express Setup

First, create a new directory for your project and initialize it with npm:

mkdir node-validation
cd node-validation
npm init -y

Next, install Express:

npm install express

Create a new file named app.js and set up a basic Express application:

const express = require('express');
const app = express();

app.get('/', (req, res) => {
  res.send('Hello, World!');

app.listen(3000, () => {
  console.log('Server listening on port 3000');


In Express, middleware are functions that have access to the request object, response object, and the next function in the request-response cycle. They can execute code, modify the request and response objects, or end the request-response cycle.

To validate and sanitize user input, we'll use middleware provided by the express-validator and sanitize-html libraries.

Using express-validator for Input Validation

express-validator is a popular library for validating and sanitizing user input in Express applications. Let's begin by installing it:

npm install express-validator

Basic Validation

Now, let's create a simple form to accept a username and email. Update your app.js file to include the following:

const express = require('express');
const { body, validationResult } = require('express-validator');
const app = express();

app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: false }));

app.post('/submit', [
  body('username').isLength({ min: 5 }).withMessage('Username must be at least 5 characters long'),
  body('email').isEmail().withMessage('Email must be a valid email address'),
], (req, res) => {
  const errors = validationResult(req);
  if (!errors.isEmpty()) {
    return res.status(400).json({ errors: errors.array() });
  res.send('Form submitted successfully');

app.listen(3000, () => {
  console.log('Server listening on port 3000');

Here, we've imported the body function from express-validator, which we use to apply validation rules to the request body. The validationResult function is used to gather the results of the validation process. We've also added a new POST route for form submission, which includes an array of validation middleware.

In this example, we're using the isLength and isEmail validators to check if the username has a minimum length of 5 characters and if the email is in a valid format. We've also added custom error messages using the withMessage method.

When the form is submitted, the validation middleware processes the input and adds any errors to the errors object. If there are errors, we return a 400 Bad Request status and the error messages. If the validation is successful, we proceed with processing the submitted data.

Custom Validators

You can also create custom validators by providing a function to the body method. For example, let's create a custom validator to check if the username does not contain any numbers:

body('username').custom((value) => {
  if (/\d/.test(value)) {
    throw new Error('Username must not contain numbers');
  return true;

Add this custom validator to the validation middleware array for the/submit route. Now, the form submission will be rejected if the username contains any numbers.

Using sanitize-html for Input Sanitization

sanitize-html is a popular library for sanitizing HTML input, which helps prevent XSS attacks. Start by installing the library:

npm install sanitize-html

Basic Sanitization

Now, let's create a simple form to accept a user's name and a comment. Update your app.js file to include the following:

const express = require('express');
const sanitizeHtml = require('sanitize-html');
const app = express();

app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: false }));

app.post('/comment', (req, res) => {
  const sanitizedComment = sanitizeHtml(req.body.comment);
  res.send(`Comment received: ${sanitizedComment}`);

app.listen(3000, () => {
  console.log('Server listening on port 3000');

In this example, we're using the sanitizeHtml function to clean any potentially harmful HTML from the user's comment before processing it. By default, sanitize-html removes any HTML tags that are not in its whitelist of allowed tags, preventing the execution of malicious scripts.

Custom Sanitization Options

You can customize the sanitization behavior by providing an options object to the sanitizeHtml function. For example, let's allow only basic text formatting tags and remove all attributes:

const sanitizeOptions = {
  allowedTags: ['b', 'i', 'em', 'strong', 'u'],
  allowedAttributes: {},

const sanitizedComment = sanitizeHtml(req.body.comment, sanitizeOptions);

By specifying the allowedTags and allowedAttributes options, we can control which HTML elements and attributes are allowed in the user's input.


In this article, we've explored the importance of validating and sanitizing user input in Node.js Express applications. We've demonstrated how to use express-validator for input validation and sanitize-html for input sanitization. By implementing these techniques, you can significantly improve the security and data consistency of your web applications.

Mình hy vọng bạn thích bài viết này và học thêm được điều gì đó mới.

Donate mình một ly cafe hoặc 1 cây bút bi để mình có thêm động lực cho ra nhiều bài viết hay và chất lượng hơn trong tương lai nhé. À mà nếu bạn có bất kỳ câu hỏi nào thì đừng ngại comment hoặc liên hệ mình qua: Zalo - 0374226770 hoặc Facebook. Mình xin cảm ơn.

Momo: NGUYỄN ANH TUẤN - 0374226770

TPBank: NGUYỄN ANH TUẤN - 0374226770 (hoặc 01681423001)


All Rights Reserved

Let's register a Viblo Account to get more interesting posts.