Một số câu hỏi trong phỏng vấn senior developer PHP

Dưới đây là một vài câu hỏi có thể có trong kì phỏng vấn senior developer PHP mình viết lại từ kinh nghiệm bản thân sau khi fail mặc dù mình đã biết câu trả lời tuy nhiên việc chuẩn bị không kĩ lưỡng dẫn tới fail phỏng vấn. Dưới đây là những câu hỏi bằng tiếng anh để các bạn có thể chuẩn bị tốt hơn mình cho kì phỏng vấn trong thời gian tìm việc khó khăn sắp tới.

Những phần câu hỏi

1. Câu hỏi về PHP

  1. Can you explain the differences between PHP 5 and PHP 7 in terms of performance and features?

  2. How do you optimize PHP code for better performance, and what tools do you use for profiling?

  3. Describe your experience with PHP frameworks. Which ones have you worked with, and which do you prefer?

  4. Explain what MVC (Model-View-Controller) is and how it's implemented in PHP frameworks like Laravel or Symfony.

  5. What is object-oriented programming (OOP) in PHP, and why is it important? Can you provide an example of an OOP concept in PHP?

  6. How do you handle security concerns in PHP applications, including SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks?

  7. Describe the steps involved in connecting PHP to a database, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using PDO versus MySQLi.

  8. Have you worked with RESTful APIs in PHP? Can you explain how to create and consume them?

  9. What are namespaces in PHP, and why are they useful?

  10. Discuss the benefits of using Composer for managing dependencies in a PHP project.

  11. How do you handle error handling and logging in PHP applications?

  12. Can you explain the differences between cookies and sessions in PHP and when to use each?

  13. What is the use of traits in PHP, and provide an example of when you might use them.

  14. Explain the concept of autoloading in PHP. How does it work, and why is it important?

  15. Describe the process of caching in PHP. What caching mechanisms have you used in your projects?

  16. How do you manage and optimize the performance of large-scale PHP applications with high traffic?

  17. Have you worked with PHP Unit or other testing frameworks for PHP? How do you ensure code quality and test coverage in your projects?

  18. Can you discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using PHP for command-line scripting?

  19. Describe your experience with continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines in PHP projects.

  20. How do you keep up-to-date with the latest developments and best practices in the PHP ecosystem?

2. Câu hỏi về MySQL

  1. What is the difference between MyISAM and InnoDB storage engines in MySQL, and when would you use one over the other?

  2. Can you explain the concept of indexing in MySQL? What are the different types of indexes, and when would you use them?

  3. How do you optimize SQL queries for better performance in MySQL? Mention some query optimization techniques.

  4. Describe the ACID properties in the context of database transactions. How does MySQL ensure data consistency and integrity?

  5. What is normalization in database design, and why is it important? Can you provide an example of normalizing a database schema?

  6. Explain the differences between INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN, RIGHT JOIN, and FULL JOIN in MySQL. When would you use each type of join?

  7. How do you handle duplicate records in MySQL when inserting data into a table? Are there any unique constraints you consider?

  8. What is the purpose of the EXPLAIN statement in MySQL, and how can it be used to analyze query execution plans?

  9. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using stored procedures and triggers in MySQL.

  10. How would you back up and restore a MySQL database? What tools and methods do you prefer for database backups?

  11. Can you explain the concept of database sharding in MySQL? When and why would you implement database sharding?

  12. What are foreign keys in MySQL, and how do they maintain referential integrity between tables?

  13. How do you handle SQL injection in PHP when interacting with a MySQL database? Describe best practices for secure SQL queries.

  14. Have you worked with partitioning in MySQL? Explain what it is and when it's useful in database management.

  15. What are the benefits of using stored functions and user-defined functions (UDFs) in MySQL? Provide examples of scenarios where you would use them.

  16. Describe the differences between MyISAM and InnoDB table locking mechanisms. How do they affect concurrent access and performance?

  17. Can you explain the concept of database normalization forms (1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF)? When and why would you use each form in database design?

  18. How do you handle large datasets in MySQL? What techniques and tools do you use for optimizing performance and managing scalability?

  19. What is replication in MySQL, and how does it work? Discuss its use cases and benefits.

  20. Have you worked with NoSQL databases in combination with MySQL? Explain when and why you might use both types of databases in a project.

3. Câu hỏi về Achitecture

  1. Explain the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architectural pattern and how it is applied in PHP frameworks like Laravel.

  2. What is microservices architecture, and how does it differ from monolithic architecture? Can you provide an example of when you would choose one over the other?

  3. Discuss the benefits and challenges of building RESTful APIs in PHP. How can you design a RESTful API that is scalable and follows best practices?

  4. Explain the concept of serverless architecture and how it can be implemented in PHP applications. What are the advantages of serverless computing?

  5. What is the role of a reverse proxy server, such as Nginx or Apache, in a PHP application's architecture? How can it improve performance and security?

  6. Describe the concept of containerization using Docker in PHP development. How does containerization benefit the development and deployment process?

  7. What is event-driven architecture, and how can PHP applications benefit from it? Provide an example of when you would use an event-driven approach.

  8. Discuss the principles of Domain-Driven Design (DDD) and how they can be applied in PHP projects. What is the significance of domain modeling in DDD?

  9. Explain the concept of a message queue and how it can be used to decouple components in a PHP application's architecture. What are common use cases for message queues?

  10. What is the Hexagonal (Ports and Adapters) architecture, and how does it promote testability and flexibility in PHP applications? Provide an example of its implementation.

  11. Describe the role of a load balancer in a high-traffic PHP application's architecture. How does load balancing improve scalability and availability?

  12. Explain the differences between synchronous and asynchronous communication in distributed systems. When would you choose one over the other in a PHP-based microservices architecture?

  13. What is the purpose of a caching layer in an application's architecture? How can you implement caching effectively in PHP to improve performance?

  14. Discuss the concept of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and its relevance in modern PHP development. How can you design loosely coupled services in SOA?

  15. Explain the role of a Content Delivery Network (CDN) in web application architecture. How does it improve the speed and availability of PHP-based websites?

  16. What is design patterns in PHP? Can you provide examples of common design patterns and when you would use them?

4. Câu hỏi về DevOps

Những câu hỏi này theo mình là phần phụ nhưng cũng rất quan trọng trong quá trình phỏng vấn, vì công việc của một senior developer không chỉ là code mà còn là quản lý hệ thống, quản lý dự án, quản lý nhóm và quản lý quy trình phát triển phần mềm.

  1. What is the difference between continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD)? How do you implement CI/CD in PHP projects?

  2. Describe the process of deploying a PHP application to a production server. What tools and techniques do you use for deployment?

  3. How do you manage configuration in PHP applications? What tools and techniques do you use for configuration management?

  4. What is the role of a container orchestration tool like Kubernetes in PHP application deployment? How does it improve scalability and availability?

Kết luận

Những câu hỏi trên các bạn hoàn toàn có thể kiểm chứng hoặc là có thể trở thành nguồn tham khảo tạm thời cho các bạn trong quá trình phỏng vấn. Mình sẽ cập nhật thêm những câu hỏi khác trong thời gian tới.

Hi vọng những câu hỏi trên sẽ giúp các bạn chuẩn bị tốt hơn cho kì phỏng vấn sắp tới.

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