Previously on Programming languages' milestones: An overview from 1960 - present :
- Part 1 Key Points: (Full article is provided on this url: https://viblo.asia/p/programming-languages-milestones-an-overview-from-1960-present-part-1-yMnKMq2rK7P )
Introduction: To make computers and electronic devices as successful as today, the development of programming languages is the most important precondition. This series is going to describe briefly about several milestones during the great history of general-purpose programming languages and about a brief introduction of domain-specific languages.
General-purpose programming languages’ milestones From early twentieth century to 1960: λ-calculus (1932), FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL 58 (1958), COBOL (1960) From 1960 - 1970: PL/I (1964)
General-purpose programming languages’ milestones (cont.)
3. From 1970 to 1980
The period from late 1970s till 1980 brought a major flowering of programming languages. Most of the major language paradigms now being in use were invented in this period. Several notable general-purpose programming languages were developed during this period: Pascal (1970), C (1972) and Prolog (1972).
First and foremost, Pascal was designed and implemented by Niklaus Wirth in 1970, a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. According to Watt, Pascal was influenced by ALGOL 60 and along with ALGOL 68, it was among the first major programming languages with both a rich variety of control structures (conditional and iterative commands) and a rich variety of data types (such as arrays, records, and recursive types). Nowadays, this programming language has grown in popularity in teaching and academics area because it is one of the most easy-to-learn language, supports structured programming, produces transparent, efficient and reliable programs, platforms independent. Pascal code snippet The greatest improvement of Pascal compared with prior general-purpose programming languages such as ALGOL and FORTRAN were pointers and many basic data types support (i.e. characters), friendly to human readability (Taoyue, 2011).
4. From 1980 to 1990:
Programming language developing trend in the 1980s was instead of inventing new paradigms, it elaborated on ideas invented in the previous decade. Besides the attempt to make C object-oriented by C with classes (renamed to C++ in 1983), the US government standardized Ada – A system programming language intended for use by defense contractors (1983). According to Watt, ADA intended to become the standard general-purpose programming language and it also attracted a lot of critics (For example, Tony Hoare quipped that PASCAL, like ALGOL60 before it, was a marked advance on its successors!) (2004). In fact, these critics were incorrect. ADA was well designed and became one of the most suitable languages for developing high quality software, especially in mission-critical applications in fields such as aerospace.
- Watt, A., D. (2004). Programming Language Design Concepts.
- Taoyue (2011). History of Pascal. Retrieved April 8, 2017 from http://www.taoyue.com/tutorials/pascal/history.html
- Lloyd, W., J. (1987). Foundations of Logic Programming (2nd extended ed).