Sử dụng Django kết hợp cùng Celery

Celery là một asynchronous job queue cực mạnh. Nó là sự thay thế rất tốt cho contab của Linux. Django là top framework tốt nhất của Python. 

Về CeleryDjango documents, các bạn có thể follow:

Note:

Celery 4.0 đã supports Django 1.8 và các versions mới hơn. Với những version cũ hơn của Django, nên sử dụng Celery 3.1.

Setup simple Django project

Thực hiện việc tạo project Django cơ bản bằng lện sau:

% mkdir celery-simple
% cd celery-simple
% virtualenv venv -p python3
Running virtualenv with interpreter /Users/minhhahao/.pyenv/versions/3.6.2/bin/python3
Using base prefix '/Users/minhhahao/.pyenv/versions/3.6.2'
New python executable in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/bin/python3
Also creating executable in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/bin/python
Installing setuptools, pip, wheel...done.
% source venv/bin/activatele
(venv) % pip install django==1.9 celery==4.0
Collecting django==1.9
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/ea/9b/b5a6360b3dfcd88d4bad70f59da26cbde4bdec395a31bb26dc840e806a50/Django-1.9-py2.py3-none-any.whl (6.6MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 6.6MB 2.2MB/s
Collecting celery==4.0
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/4b/19/745db97793f786644df142f059beea7c784fa3e856758bb5c18891004d49/celery-4.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (395kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 399kB 2.2MB/s
Collecting pytz>dev (from celery==4.0)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/dc/83/15f7833b70d3e067ca91467ca245bae0f6fe56ddc7451aa0dc5606b120f2/pytz-2018.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl (510kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 512kB 9.6MB/s
Collecting billiard<3.6.0,>=3.5.0.2 (from celery==4.0)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/82/55/76f4e786141b7174926cdffa7a155aeea316b729118fb48ec548f3c6754f/billiard-3.5.0.3-py3-none-any.whl (89kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 92kB 7.8MB/s
Collecting kombu<5.0,>=4.0 (from celery==4.0)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/62/a4/5d16954803224a1e451713293c2a028614099f5538cf626e1fdd7b438c86/kombu-4.1.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (181kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 184kB 8.6MB/s
Collecting amqp<3.0,>=2.1.4 (from kombu<5.0,>=4.0->celery==4.0)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/88/4a/8c45a882d842678963516ebd9cf584a4ded51af719234c3b696c2e884c60/amqp-2.2.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl (48kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 51kB 15.6MB/s
Collecting vine>=1.1.3 (from amqp<3.0,>=2.1.4->kombu<5.0,>=4.0->celery==4.0)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/10/50/5b1ebe42843c19f35edb15022ecae339fbec6db5b241a7a13c924dabf2a3/vine-1.1.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Installing collected packages: django, pytz, billiard, vine, amqp, kombu, celery
Successfully installed amqp-2.2.2 billiard-3.5.0.3 celery-4.0.0 django-1.9 kombu-4.1.0 pytz-2018.4 vine-1.1.4
(venv) % django-admin startproject simple
(venv) % cd simple
(venv) % python manage.py startapp ce

Cấu trúc simple project:

(venv) % tree
.
├── ce
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── admin.py
│   ├── apps.py
│   ├── migrations
│   │   └── __init__.py
│   ├── models.py
│   ├── tests.py
│   └── views.py
├── manage.py
└── simple
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── __pycache__
    │   ├── __init__.cpython-36.pyc
    │   └── settings.cpython-36.pyc
    ├── settings.py
    ├── urls.py
    └── wsgi.py

4 directories, 14 files

Sau khi tạo xong, mình tạo một view print "Hello World!" trên web:

# simple/settings.py
# Application definition
INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'ce'
]

# simple/urls.py
from django.conf.urls import url, include
from django.contrib import admin


urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^', include('ce.urls'))
]


# ce/urls.py
# Create new file `ce/urls.py` to define url of app ce
from django.conf.urls import url
from ce import views


urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^$', views.index),
]

# ce/views.py
# Define view
from django.http import HttpResponse


def index(request):
    return HttpResponse("Hello World!")

Run server!

(venv) % python manage.py runserver                                                                     
Performing system checks...

System check identified no issues (0 silenced).

May 03, 2018 - 02:22:31
Django version 1.9, using settings 'simple.settings'
Starting development server at http://127.0.0.1:8000/
Quit the server with CONTROL-C.

Setup a simple celery task

Để chạy được Celery bạn cần setup Redis server hoặc RabbitMQ server. Và chắc chắn chúng đã được cài đặt

  • Với Redis server:
# simple/settings.py
REDIS_HOST = 'localhost'
REDIS_PORT = '6379'
BROKER_URL = 'redis://' + REDIS_HOST + ':' + REDIS_PORT + '/0'
  • Với RabbitMQ server:
# simple/settings.py
BROKER_URL = 'amqp://guest:[email protected]:5672/' 

OK, tiếp theo mình tạo một file để define Celery  instance:

from __future__ import absolute_import, unicode_literals
import os
from celery import Celery

# set the default Django settings module for the 'celery' program.
os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'simple.settings')

app = Celery('simple')

# Using a string here means the worker doesn't have to serialize
# the configuration object to child processes.
# - namespace='CELERY' means all celery-related configuration keys
#   should have a `CELERY_` prefix.
app.config_from_object('django.conf:settings', namespace='CELERY')

# Load task modules from all registered Django app configs.
app.autodiscover_tasks()


@app.task(bind=True)
def debug_task(self):
    print('Request: {0!r}'.format(self.request))

Sau đó, import task into simple/__init__.py

# simple/__init__.py
from __future__ import absolute_import, unicode_literals

# This will make sure the app is always imported when
# Django starts so that shared_task will use this app.
from .celery import app as celery_app

__all__ = ['celery_app']

Tiếp theo, mình sẽ tạo một task print ra timenow mỗi lần load trang HelloWorld!. Mình tạo một file ce/task.py. Cấu trúc project looklike:

(venv) % tree
.
├── ce
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── __pycache__
│   │   ├── __init__.cpython-36.pyc
│   │   ├── admin.cpython-36.pyc
│   │   ├── models.cpython-36.pyc
│   │   ├── urls.cpython-36.pyc
│   │   └── views.cpython-36.pyc
│   ├── admin.py
│   ├── apps.py
│   ├── migrations
│   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   └── __pycache__
│   │       └── __init__.cpython-36.pyc
│   ├── models.py
│   ├── taks.py
│   ├── tests.py
│   ├── urls.py
│   └── views.py
├── db.sqlite3
├── manage.py
└── simple
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── __pycache__
    │   ├── __init__.cpython-36.pyc
    │   ├── celery.cpython-36.pyc
    │   ├── settings.cpython-36.pyc
    │   ├── urls.cpython-36.pyc
    │   └── wsgi.cpython-36.pyc
    ├── celery.py
    ├── settings.py
    ├── urls.py
    └── wsgi.py

6 directories, 27 files

Modify file task.py

# ce/taks.py
# Create your tasks here
from celery import shared_task


@shared_task
def add(x, y):
    return x + y


@shared_task
def mul(x, y):
    return x * y


@shared_task
def xsum(numbers):
    return sum(numbers)

Để sử dụng kết hợp giữa DjangoCelery mình sử dụng django-celery-results extension

(venv) % pip install django-celery-results
Collecting django-celery-results
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/8d/82/4ede39c945811ffea9de29c5d312e1ab84352c3b01a290f9dce81614567d/django_celery_results-1.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Requirement already satisfied: celery<5.0,>=4.0 in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from django-celery-results) (4.0.0)
Requirement already satisfied: billiard<3.6.0,>=3.5.0.2 in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from celery<5.0,>=4.0->django-celery-results) (3.5.0.3)
Requirement already satisfied: kombu<5.0,>=4.0 in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from celery<5.0,>=4.0->django-celery-results) (4.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: pytz>dev in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from celery<5.0,>=4.0->django-celery-results) (2018.4)
Requirement already satisfied: amqp<3.0,>=2.1.4 in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from kombu<5.0,>=4.0->celery<5.0,>=4.0->django-celery-results) (2.2.2)
Requirement already satisfied: vine>=1.1.3 in /Users/minhhahao/workspace/celery-simple/venv/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from amqp<3.0,>=2.1.4->kombu<5.0,>=4.0->celery<5.0,>=4.0->django-celery-results) (1.1.4)
Installing collected packages: django-celery-results
Successfully installed django-celery-results-1.0.1

Add django_celery_resultss into simple/settings/.py

# simple/settings.py
INSTALLED_APPS = (
    ...,
    'django_celery_results',
)

Run task:

% celery -A simple worker -l info -B                                                               

[email protected] v4.0.0 (latentcall)

Darwin-16.7.0-x86_64-i386-64bit 2018-05-03 03:33:01

[config]
.> app:         simple:0x1035f6ba8
.> transport:   amqp://guest:**@localhost:5672//
.> results:
.> concurrency: 8 (prefork)
.> task events: OFF (enable -E to monitor tasks in this worker)

[queues]
.> celery           exchange=celery(direct) key=celery


[tasks]
  . simple.celery.debug_task -> This task defined

[2018-05-03 03:33:01,752: INFO/Beat] beat: Starting...
[2018-05-03 03:33:03,053: INFO/MainProcess] Connected to amqp://guest:**@127.0.0.1:5672//
[2018-05-03 03:33:03,065: INFO/MainProcess] mingle: searching for neighbors
[2018-05-03 03:33:04,085: INFO/MainProcess] mingle: all alone
/Users/minhhahao/.pyenv/versions/3.5.2/lib/python3.5/site-packages/celery/fixups/django.py:202: UserWarning: Using settings.DEBUG leads to a memory leak, never use this setting in production environments!
  warnings.warn('Using settings.DEBUG leads to a memory leak, never '

[2018-05-03 03:33:04,107: WARNING/MainProcess] /Users/minhhahao/.pyenv/versions/3.5.2/lib/python3.5/site-packages/celery/fixups/django.py:202: UserWarning: Using settings.DEBUG leads to a memory leak, never use this setting in production environments!
  warnings.warn('Using settings.DEBUG leads to a memory leak, never '

[2018-05-03 03:33:04,107: INFO/MainProcess] [email protected] ready.

Cơ bản là vậy !!!

Warning:

  • Đôi khi sẽ phát sinh lỗi tương thích: python, celery, django. Ở đây, mình sử dụng Python 3.5.2, Celery 4.0, Django 1.9. Bạn cần chọn đúng version để tránh lỗi phát sinh.

  • Để run được Celery thì bạn cần chắc chắn đã setup Redis hoặc RabbitMQ server để chạy Asynchronous Thanks for reading!